Monday, April 28, 2008
The kethuk is a single kettle-gong of definite pitch (the kethuk of the Kyai Telaga Rukmi ensemble is a pitch 2; see pages about the Javanese scales and cipher notation for more information.) It is played in one of two ways depending upon the irama (speed) of the piece. In a fast irama the musician strikes the button or knob of the instrument without letting the stick rebound or the note ring. The sound of the kethuk is a dry "Thuk" (the name of the instrument mirrors its sound). In a slower irama the kethuk is played in a kind of "dribbling" pattern somewhat like "Thuk thuk thuk thuk thuk".
The kempyang consists of two kettle-gongs of higher pitch than that of the kethuk. Either one or both kempyang kettles may be stuck and allowed to ring with a "Pyang" sound. The two kettles are pitched about a note apart, so it can be a very disonant sound when they are struck together.
Kendang (Javanese: Kendhang) is the primary drum used in the Gamelan ensembles of Java and Bali as well as various Kulintang ensembles in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and the southern Philippines. They usually are placed on stands horizontally and hit with the hands one either side while seated on the floor. One side is generally larger than the other, with the larger, lower-pitched side usually placed to the right. The skin is typically made of goat or buffalo, stretched on y-shaped leather or rattan strings, which can be tightened to change the pitch of the heads. The kendhang is smaller than the bedug, which is placed inside a frame, hit with a beater, and used less frequently. In archaic gamelan ensembles, the kendhang may be hit with a stick.
The kendhang usually has the function of keeping the tempo and changing irama, and signalling some of the transitions (paralihan) to sections and the end of the piece (suwuk). In dance or wayang, the kendhang player must follow the movements of the dancer, and communicate them to the other players in the ensemble.
In West Java, kendang is also used to keep the tempo of Gamelan Degung. Kendang is also used as main instrument for Jaipongan dance. There is also another composition where a group of kendang players play in kendang harmony, called Rampak Kendang.
A gong is an East Asian musical instrument that takes the form of a flat metal disc which is hit with a mallet.
Gongs are broadly of three types. Suspended gongs are more or less flat, circular discs of metal suspended vertically by means of a cord passed through holes near to the top rim. Bossed gongs have a raised center boss and are often suspended and played horizontally. Bowl gongs are bowl-shaped, and rest on cushions and belong more to bells than gongs. Gongs are made mainly from bronze or brass but there are many other alloys in use.
Rebana is a name that is used for several types of drums that are used in Islamic devotional music such as zikir, dance music, and other types of traditional Malay song and in dance Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia and Singapore. It typically has a resonant sound reminiscent of the Middle Eastern tanbur and is often used to keep the beat in a manner similar to the way the tanbour is used in Middle Eastern music. Malay Rebana are different from the javanese drum or "Kendang". Rebana may only have one face to hit while Javanese Kendang may have two face.
There are many type of rebana, the biggest rebana known is Rebana Ubi. Rebana Ubi are widely use by the Malay people in East Coast Malaysia such Kelantan or Terengganu. This type of rebana is the only rebana have a decorative pattern on the body and the face.Smaller rebana also known as Kompang is widely use by Malay people when celebrating the bride and groom in a wedding ceremony.In state of Johore, a type of Rebana known as Rebana Hadrah. Meanwhile in Sumatra, Malay and Minang people also use rebana in many native dance.